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In response to a request for testimony by the US Senate Judiciary Committee, the Markle Task Force calls for immediate action to prepare America for the future by addressing the cultural, institutional, and technological obstacles that prevented the government from taking full advantage of information about the attempted Christmas Day attack.
NEW YORK, NY—The Markle Foundation announced today the appointment of Eric Rosenbach as Managing Director of National Security. Mr. Rosenbach is currently the Executive Director of the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard’s Kennedy School, where he also taught a course on counterterrorism policy and law. He previously served as a professional staff member on the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and as the national security advisor for US Senator Chuck Hagel. He will start his new position with Markle in Washington, DC in mid-June of this year. “Eric is a widely respected national security expert with particular knowledge of information technology, cyber security, and intelligence. We are delighted he is joining Markle,” says Markle president Zoë Baird. “He will bring great depth to our work with his background in government, technology, military intelligence, and national security law.” Markle's National Security work has focused on keeping America safe by transforming how government does business—making it better informed and more collaborative while protecting civil liberties through the best use of technology and management know-how available. The primary vehicle for Markle’s work in national security has been the Markle Task Force on National Security in the Information Age. The Markle Task Force is comprised of a diverse and bipartisan group of experienced national security policy makers from the past six presidential administrations, senior executives from the information technology industry, public interest advocates, and experts in privacy and intelligence. It has been co-chaired by Zoë Baird and Jim Barksdale. As Managing Director of National Security, Mr. Rosenbach will lead the work of the Markle Task Force and the further implementation of recommendations for developing a trusted information sharing framework and expand Markle’s efforts in related areas. Mr. Rosenbach’s prior work in the private sector includes serving as Chief Security Officer at World Online International, the largest Internet service provider in Europe at that time, where he was responsible for all aspects of cyber security, privacy, and network operations. As a military intelligence officer supporting post-conflict operations in the Balkans, Mr. Rosenbach was awarded the Meritorious Service Medal. The Director of Central Intelligence named his unit the top intelligence organization in the US military for two consecutive years. Mr. Rosenbach has co-authored books focusing on both congressional oversight of intelligence and counterterrorism policy. His published opinion pieces have appeared in the Washington Post, the International Herald Tribune, the Boston Globe, the Baltimore Sun, and the Chicago Tribune. Mr. Rosenbach completed a Juris Doctor with a focus on national security law at Georgetown, a Master’s degree in public policy at the Harvard Kennedy School, and a Bachelor of Arts at Davidson College. As a Fulbright Scholar in Eastern Europe, he conducted postgraduate research on privatization programs. The Markle Task Force on National Security in the Information Age is a diverse and bipartisan group of former policy makers from the past six presidential administrations, senior information technology executives, and privacy advocates from both the public and private sectors. The Markle Task Force has recommended ways of improving national security decisions by transforming business processes and how information is shared. Its recommendations informed the 9/11 Commission Report and were subsequently included in two federal laws. Learn more about the Markle Task Force at www.markle.org/national-security.
WASHINGTON, DC—A plan for the “virtual reorganization of government” using the best technology to connect the dots and the best management know-how to get people working across agency lines can strengthen our national security and help meet the threat of terrorism, according to testimony submitted today to the House Judiciary Committee by Zoe Baird, president of the Markle Foundation, and former Senator Slade Gorton, both of whom are members of the Markle Task Force on National Security in the Information Age. Senator Gorton also served on the 9/11 Commission. “In the wake of the attempted Christmas Day attack on Flight 253, it is essential to distinguish between amassing dots and connecting them,” they told the Judiciary Committee in written testimony in connection with today’s hearing, entitled Sharing and Analyzing Information to Prevent Terrorism. “Information sharing is a means, not an end. The end goal is production of actionable intelligence derived from a form of collaboration that leads to insight and action.” The Markle Task Force is composed of national security policymakers from every administration since President Carter, civil liberties advocates, and information technology experts. It has been working since 2002 to improve national security, issuing four separate reports and a number of supplemental briefs. The recommendations of the Markle Task Force on information sharing were embraced by the 9/11 Commission and the Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission, and were enacted in the intelligence reform laws passed since the September 11 attacks. The most recent report, in March 2009, Nation At Risk: Policy Makers Need Better Information to Protect the Country , urged the President and Congress to take swift action to ensure that policy makers have the best information available to confront a stark set of 21st century national security challenges. The Markle Task Force is calling for immediate action to prepare America for the future by addressing the cultural, institutional, and technological obstacles that prevented the government from taking full advantage of information about the attempted Christmas Day attack. Specifically, the Markle Task Force offered five proposals to the Committee: strong sustained leadership from Congress and the President transformation of how government does business to create a decentralized information sharing framework that enables collaboration not only between computers but among teams of people development of “discoverability” so that relevant information can be discovered and located quickly and efficiently to facilitate quickly piecing information together discoverability should be combined with a standard of authorized use to determine whether a user is authorized to see information that has been discovered development of government-wide privacy and civil liberties policies for information sharing to match increased technological capabilities to collect, store, and analyze data “Our enemies will continue to adapt,” the Markle Task Force members told the Committee. “The next attack may not come from the air. Improved information sharing is a long-term strategic tool that will allow the US to stay one step ahead of its enemies whether they are attempting to attack our critical infrastructure in cyberspace, deploy biological weapons, or smuggle explosives through airport security.” A copy of the complete testimony submitted to the Judiciary Committee is available at www.markle.org, where you will also find the four reports of the Task Force on National Security in the Information Age, issue briefs, and current information on these issues. The Markle Task Force on National Security in the Information Age is a diverse and bipartisan group of former policy makers from the past six presidential administrations, senior information technology executives, and privacy advocates from both the public and private sectors. The Markle Task Force has recommended ways of improving national security decisions by transforming business processes and how information is shared. Its recommendations informed the 9/11 Commission Report and were subsequently included in two federal laws. Learn more about the Markle Task Force at www.markle.org/national-security.
WASHINGTON, DC—Jeffrey Smith, an expert on information sharing and a Member of the Markle Task Force on National Security in the Information Age, will testify Thursday (7/30) at 10:00am before the House Committee on Homeland Security Subcommittee on Intelligence, Information Sharing and Terrorism Risk Assessment. Representative Jane Harman will chair the hearing "Beyond ISE Implementation: Exploring the Way Forward for Information Sharing." Smith will bring to the Subcommittee recommendations made by the Task Force to meet the21st century threats America faces, focusing on how to strengthen America's national security by improving information sharing in ways that protect privacy and civil liberties. The Task Force has provided critical leadership to Congress and the Executive Branch, with many of its proposals already adopted into law or executive orders. The Task Force's latest report, Nation At Risk: Policy Makers Need Better Information to Protect the Country, offers a critical roadmap for the way forward on information sharing. Its recommendations include: Strong sustained leadership from the Executive Office of the President (EOP) and Congress to drive improved information sharing. New ways to make government information relevant to national security discoverable and accessible to authorized users while also creating mechanisms to audit use to ensure accountability. Enhanced government-wide privacy and civil liberties policies. The Markle Task Force on National Security in the Information Age is a diverse and bipartisan group of former policy makers from the past six presidential administrations, senior information technology executives, and privacy advocates from both the public and private sectors. The Markle Task Force has recommended ways of improving national security decisions by transforming business processes and how information is shared. Its recommendations informed the 9/11 Commission Report and were subsequently included in two federal laws. Learn more about the Markle Task Force at www.markle.org/national-security.
WASHINGTON, DC—A Markle Foundation report issued today says that the continued lack of information sharing between federal, state, and local agencies puts the US at risk of terrorist attack and emerging national security threats. At the same time, civil liberties are at risk because we don’t have the government-wide policies in place to protect them as intelligence collection has expanded. The findings are the work of the Markle Foundation Task Force on National Security in the Information Age, a bipartisan group of former policymakers and technology and national security experts. The report urges the Obama Administration to take swift action to ensure that policymakers have the best information available to confront a stark set of national security challenges including terrorism, instability from the global economic crisis, energy security, climate change, cyber security, and weapons of mass destruction. “For all the nation has invested in national security since 9/11, we remain vulnerable to terrorist attack and emerging national security threats because we have not adequately improved our ability to connect the dots between intelligence gathering and threat protection.” said Markle Task Force co-chair Zoe Baird, president of the Markle Foundation. “We still don’t know what we know about these threats.” According to Markle Task Force member and former Senator Slade Gorton, “The sense of urgency on information sharing has diminished in the seven years since the 9/11 attacks. In addition, civil liberties are at risk because we don’t have the policies in place to protect them as intelligence collection has expanded.” The report recommends that President Obama and his administration provide sustained leadership on information sharing among all branches of government, including state and local entities. Further, Congress should increase the intensity of its efforts to provide the necessary oversight to protect the nation. Markle Task Force Member and former General Counsel to the CIA Jeffrey H. Smith added, “To identify, understand, and respond to the threats we face, President Obama and his administration should take the steps necessary to bring together fragments of information to create knowledge and improve decision making. Otherwise, we will remain at risk.” Key Recommendations Key recommendations of the report include the following: The President must make information sharing a top priority by establishing leadership that can manage and oversee implementation across government. To ensure confidence that the increased use of technological capabilities to collect store, share, and analyze information is lawful and appropriate, the President and Congress must develop government-wide privacy policies that both empower and constrain government officials in how they use and handle information. All government information relevant to national security must be discoverable by those who need to have that information for their mission. Access to that information must be authorized based on their role, mission, and a predicated purpose, and audited to improve accountability and enhance information security. The Markle Task Force on National Security in the Information Age is a diverse and bipartisan group of former policy makers from the past six presidential administrations, senior information technology executives, and privacy advocates from both the public and private sectors. The Markle Task Force has recommended ways of improving national security decisions by transforming business processes and how information is shared. Its recommendations informed the 9/11 Commission Report and were subsequently included in two federal laws. Learn more about the Markle Task Force at www.markle.org/national-security.
WASHINGTON, DC—The Markle Foundation Task Force on National Security in the Information Age released its third report today with recommendations on how to reconcile national security needs with civil liberties requirements. The report offers a new "authorized use" standard for government handling of legally collected information that bases authorization to view information on how the information is going to be used, rather than on the nationality of the subject or the location of collection. The report also proposes a new risk management approach to sharing classified information that balances the risk of compromising classified information with the security risk that can come from failing to share information with those who need it to understand the threats to national security. Further, the report identifies examples of technology that can be used effectively to provide appropriate oversight and accountability. In its two previous reports that were incorporated in the information sharing provisions of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 and several Executive Orders, the Task Force called for the creation of a trusted information sharing environment where terrorist-related information is shared among all the people who need it—at the federal, state and local level as well as the private sector—with confidence and accountability for security and civil liberties protections. Better information sharing is essential in the fight against terrorism. Two years since the publication of its last report, and nearly five years since the terrorist attacks of September 11, the Task Force finds that while more information is being shared, the government still has not taken many key steps to meet the challenges of sharing information to prevent terrorism while protecting civil liberties. "We have consistently said that public trust in a network that uses personally-identifiable information can only be achieved if government-wide guidelines for information sharing and privacy protection are established after open public debate," said Zoe Baird, co-chair of the Task Force and President of the Markle Foundation. The Task Force again emphasized the importance of trust in the information sharing environment. Government agencies must trust each other with sensitive information, and the American people must trust their government to use information in a manner that protects their privacy and civil liberties. The report calls for renewed leadership by the President and Congress to accelerate the process already underway. "Persistent leadership in the implementation and strong oversight of the operation of information sharing systems is required from all branches to accelerate the creation of a trusted information sharing environment" said James Barksdale, Co-Chair of the Task Force. To help implement a trusted information sharing environment, the Task Force recommends the adoption of: An "authorized use" standard to determine who should have access to information the government has lawfully collected based on the use to which they will put the information rather than its place of collection. "The borderless nature of the threat has rendered unworkable some of the old rules on sharing lawfully collected information. Under the authorized use approach we propose, each agency can get the information it needs to pursue a clearly articulated mission, subject to auditing to ensure accountability and protect privacy," says Jim Dempsey of the Center for Democracy and Technology and a member of the Task Force. The rules for the authorized use standard should be developed through open public debate. The current outdated standards for sharing and accessing information based on nationality and place of collection have caused confusion and in some cases produced a rigidity that impedes desirable information sharing without protecting civil liberties. The Task Force recommends an "authorized use" standard based on well-defined missions for participants in the information sharing environment. A "risk management" approach to classification that better balances the risks of inappropriate disclosure with the risks of failing to share information. Current classification procedures are frequently a barrier to effective information sharing because they overemphasize the risks of inadvertent disclosure over those of failure to share information. To avoid this situation, the Task force recommends a new risk management approach to classification that gives adequate weight to the risks of not sharing information. Clear guidelines for sharing information while protecting civil liberties. "Government-wide policies, processes and guidelines that facilitate information sharing and provide trust by empowering and constraining users should be developed as well as the technology solution we have suggested," says Bill Crowell of the Task Force. "The guidelines should clarify agency missions and address the requisite security, civil liberties and privacy protections." Every government agency and department should know and understand the rules of information sharing - not only to improve our anti-terror efforts but also to provide a standard to measure success and ensure accountability. Technology that facilitates sharing while protecting security and privacy. The Task Force calls for the continued development and use of technology to connect people in ways that improve trust among government officials and the public. Technology exists that can improve data sharing, enhance security, as well as facilitate privacy and accountability. An effective dispute resolution process. Even with clear and consistent guidelines for information sharing, disputes will inevitably arise over decisions not to share information. The Task Force recommends the creation of a systematic, workable, efficient process to resolve these disputes. The recommendations address disputes about dissemination and retention, accuracy and correction, as well as broader disagreements about access to and use of databases and categories of information. A new Information Sharing Institute. The Institute could make operational and professional expertise available beyond that of individuals working in any particular government agency, department, or contractor. This Institute would provide a mechanism to identify and distribute best practices, and to apply technologies available in other sectors. It should have the full and active participation of organizations from federal, state, and local governments as well as the private sector. The Task Force promotes a trusted environment that fosters sharing and collaboration among those with information useful to understand terrorist threats; where policies and technologies are developed in tandem; and where security is enhanced and civil liberties are protected. The Markle Task Force on National Security in the Information Age is a diverse and bipartisan group of former policy makers from the past six presidential administrations, senior information technology executives, and privacy advocates from both the public and private sectors. The Markle Task Force has recommended ways of improving national security decisions by transforming business processes and how information is shared. Its recommendations informed the 9/11 Commission Report and were subsequently included in two federal laws. Learn more about the Markle Task Force at www.markle.org/national-security.
NEW YORK, NY—The Markle Foundation Task Force on National Security in the Information Age said today that the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 contains important information sharing provisions that will help enhance security as well as civil liberties protections. The legislation calls for the creation of a decentralized, distributed and coordinated information sharing environment that would support better terrorism information sharing between agencies with built-in safeguards for civil liberties. The provisions largely mirror the recommendations put forward by the Task Force on the creation of a trusted information sharing capability. "Information is key to protecting our country from future terrorist attacks and the information sharing provisions in the Intelligence Reform Act will fundamentally alter how information is used to facilitate better and faster decision-making at all levels of government," said Zoë Baird, president of the Markle Foundation and co-chair of the Task Force. "This legislation, once signed into law by the President, along with the Executive Orders on information sharing issued by the White House in August, can help enhance our security by allowing local law enforcement agents, intelligence analysts and senior policy makers to make sense of all of the information available and 'better connect the dots.' It will also enhance civil liberties by mandating that new privacy protections be built into the system from the start." The Markle Task Force consists of leading national security experts from five administrations, as well as widely recognized experts on technology and on civil liberties. Over the last several years, the Task Force's work has broken new ground on how technology and policy can be used together to enhance security and privacy. The Task Force's latest report, Creating a Trusted Information Network for Homeland Security, details the necessary elements of a proposed System-wide Homeland Analysis and Resource Exchange (SHARE) network capability that would more effectively combat terrorism than does our current system, while protecting privacy. The 9/11 Commission, in their final report, embraced the idea of the SHARE capability calling the Task Force's recommendations an "outstanding conceptual framework" of a "trusted information network." "The terrorist attacks of September 11 demonstrated the urgent need for us to rid ourselves of the Cold War mentality of 'need to know' and replace it with a new system based on the 'need to share,'" said James Barksdale, CEO of Barksdale Management and co-chair of the Task Force. "The passage of this legislation can get terrorism information flowing to the appropriate government officials and help them to better predict and prevent future terrorist attacks." The Task Force's recommendations call for equal attention to enhancing both security and privacy by writing new privacy protection policies into the use of technology from the start. This will be critical to establishing the public's trust, which is a critical component of using technology to strengthen our security. As noted in an open letter released in October by Task Force members and noted civil liberties and privacy protection advocates Dave Farber, Esther Dyson and Tara Lemmey, the Task Force's approach "builds accountability, transparency and oversight into the system," which will do far more to protect privacy than the status quo. In addition, they noted that "the Task Force also designed the network not as a centralized database, but as a set of pointers and directories that allow only authorized users to gain access to information. The Task Force also calls for a phased implementation to allow for appropriate public comment and a strong civil liberties board to oversee the system and ensure that privacy protections are strengthened." The Markle Task Force on National Security in the Information Age is a diverse and bipartisan group of former policy makers from the past six presidential administrations, senior information technology executives, and privacy advocates from both the public and private sectors. The Markle Task Force has recommended ways of improving national security decisions by transforming business processes and how information is shared. Its recommendations informed the 9/11 Commission Report and were subsequently included in two federal laws. Learn more about the Markle Task Force at www.markle.org/national-security.
WASHINGTON, DC—The Markle Foundation Task Force on National Security in the Information Age today released its second report, concluding that the U.S. government has not yet taken advantage of America's technology expertise to fight the war on terrorism. In its report, Creating A Trusted Information Network for Homeland Security, the Task Force catalogs current gaps in the nation's system for analyzing and sharing intelligence. It details the elements of a proposed System-wide Homeland Analysis and Resource Exchange (SHARE) Network that would more effectively combat terrorism while protecting privacy and other civil liberties. In its first report in October 2002, the Markle Task Force identified the ability to share information as the most urgent task facing government in protecting the homeland. It laid out a plan for a distributed information technology network to share terrorism-related information among federal, state and local government agencies and the private sector so that threats could be identified and prevented. In it second report, the Task Force finds that the government's progress since September 11, 2001, toward building an adequate network has been slow and is not guided by an overall vision of how information should be shared and analyzed in keeping with adequate guidelines to protect privacy and other civil liberties. Good work is being done in some agencies, but isolated projects cannot reach scale or break through cultural barriers fast enough to prevent another attack. "Using currently available technology, the government can set up a network that substantially improves our ability to prevent terrorism and protect civil liberties," said Zoe Baird, president of the Markle Foundation and co-chair with James Barksdale of the Markle Task Force on National Security in the Information Age. "Public trust in a network that uses information about people in the U.S. can only be achieved if government-wide guidelines for information sharing and privacy protection are established after open public debate." The Task Force—whose members include some of the nation's leading experts on national security who served in the Carter, Reagan, Bush and Clinton Administrations, as well as leading experts on information technology and civil liberties—calls on the President to: Set the goal of creating the network; issue clear government-wide policy guidelines for the government's collection and use of domestic information, including private sector information about U.S. persons; clarify the respective roles of DHS, the Terrorist Threat Integration Center (TTIC), the FBI and other federal agencies involved with collection and analysis of domestic terrorism information. The Task Force concluded that until the government gives priority to breaking down its institutional barriers to cooperation and presents the public with a cohesive plan for the network, the public will not understand how private sector information is a critical part of the network. Further, government-wide guidelines are needed that clearly define the security interests in research into data mining of private sector information and that provide controls to address the privacy implications of such programs in order to establish public trust in these programs. In its report, the Task Force notes that it is essential that the government shed its Cold War culture in order to properly address the threat the nation faces from terrorism. During the Cold War, the use of information was dominated by a culture of classification and tight limitations on access, in which information was shared only on a "need to know" basis. However, the events of September 11 have starkly demonstrated the dangers associated with the failure to share information, not only within the federal government, but also between the federal government, on the one hand, and state and local governments and the private sector on the other. The threat today requires unprecedented speed in the way the government collects, shares, and acts on information. To deal with this threat, information needs to be tailored to facilitate decision-making and action at all levels-not only by the President, but also the police officers on the street. Our Task Force's fundamental objective was to identify the technological tools and infrastructure, the policies, and the processes necessary to link different levels of government and the private sector, so that important information can be shared among the people who need it as rapidly as possible, within a system of guidelines and technologies designed to protect civil liberties," said Michael Vatis, executive director of the Task Force. "The government has caused confusion by creating multiple new agencies without clearly defining their respective roles and responsibilities." The SHARE network that the Task Force has proposed—which it recommends be overseen by DHS—in the first stage could be built using existing technology. Technology products that are currently available would allow information to be both protected and shared through the use of published directories, listing who has relevant information, and permissioning rules to determine whom can access the information. Currently available technology would also allow for the authentication for subscribers to the directories and the anonymization of personally identifiable information where appropriate in order to share the necessary information while protecting privacy. As the recent controversies surrounding DARPA's Terrorist Information Awareness program and an Army contractor's use of Jet Blue passenger data demonstrate, government access to, and use of, privately held data remains a vexing problem. In its report, the Task Force notes that the government should effectively utilize the valuable information that is held in private hands, but only within a system of rules and guidelines designed to protect civil liberties. Since it is not possible for the nation to harden all potential targets against terrorist attack, the Task Force concludes that the government must rely on information to detect, prevent, and effectively respond to attacks. The travel, hotel, financial, immigration, health, or educational records of a person suspected by the government to be a terrorist may hold information that is vital to unveiling both his intentions and those of other terrorists. However, the Task Force also concludes that the government should not have routine access to personally identifying information even if it is widely available to the public. If government is to sustain public support for its efforts, it must demonstrate that the information it seeks to acquire is genuinely important to the security mission and is obtained and used in a way that minimizes its impact on privacy and civil liberties. Until government-wide guidelines that achieve this are developed, public concern over potential privacy infringements will continue to hamper the necessary development of new technologies and new operational programs necessary to use that information. Policy guidelines like these are meant to empower government officials as well as limit them, and Congress and the Executive Branch should share a common commitment to both objectives. The Task Force also calls on the President to issue guidelines governing the authority of intelligence and security agencies to receive, retain and disseminate government information gathered in the U.S. about U.S. persons and guidelines governing their ability to task the domestic collection of information. New guidelines in this area are particularly important since the creation of TTIC as an all-source intelligence and analysis center raises the question of what will replace the previous "line at the border" that largely defined the distinctive rules for foreign and domestic intelligence. It is critically important that the President issue this guidance before another major terrorist incident occurs. If public debate were to take place in the shadow of another major national tragedy, it could lead to rushed and poorly conceived initiatives that not only fail to solve the underlying problems, but also have a detrimental impact on civil liberties. Finally, the Task Force recommends that in one year, the Executive Branch and Congress evaluate the progress of federal, state, local, and private sector entities in improving information sharing and analysis and in utilizing private sector data while protecting civil liberties. To help with this evaluation, the Task Force issued detailed sets of questions than can be asked to determine whether adequate progress has been made. The Markle Task Force on National Security in the Information Age is a diverse and bipartisan group of former policy makers from the past six presidential administrations, senior information technology executives, and privacy advocates from both the public and private sectors. The Markle Task Force has recommended ways of improving national security decisions by transforming business processes and how information is shared. Its recommendations informed the 9/11 Commission Report and were subsequently included in two federal laws. Learn more about the Markle Task Force at www.markle.org/national-security.
WASHINGTON, DC—A new report released today by the Markle Foundation Task Force on National Security recommends that a new Department of Homeland Security (DHS) rather than the FBI should take the lead in shaping domestic information and intelligence priorities to inform policymakers. The report calls for a networked information technology system that effectively shares information among local, state, regional and federal agencies and the private sector, and sets forth a blueprint for how such a system can be established under a set of Presidential guidelines. "Today's information technology allows us to use the power of widely distributed information to protect Americans against terrorist threats," Task Force co-chairs Zoë Baird and James Barksdale said. "America will make a mistake if we create a centralized 'mainframe' information architecture focused on the nation's capital when the intelligence and other information critical to homeland security need to be shared and coordinated across the country and around the world." As the 9/11 stories illustrate, most information gathering is done by people who are far removed from Washington. The people on the frontlines are at the local level: the police officer hearing a complaint from a landlord; an airport official who hears about a plane a pilot trainee left on a runway; an FBI agent puzzled by an odd flight school student in Arizona; or an emergency room resident treating a strange ailment. The report argues that because of the nature of new terrorist threats, it is necessary to create a more horizontal, cooperative, and fluid process for intelligence collection, sharing and analysis. "The U.S. has to develop a sophisticated and integrated information network to protect Americans from attacks at home," said Philip Zelikow, Executive Director of The Task Force, which includes experts who served in the Carter, Reagan, Bush and Clinton administrations as well as those from the private sector and the academy. "We need a new national strategy that is networked and transforms intelligence institutions, uses guidelines to balance privacy with security, and uses the best practices from the private sector." The Task Force, composed of leading experts in national security, information technology, and legal and privacy issues, argues that the Department of Justice and its FBI should be the lead agencies for law enforcement, exercising the power to investigate crimes, charge people with crimes, and prepare cases for trial and appeal. The report argues that DHS should be the lead agency shaping domestic information to inform policymakers and set broad priorities for collecting information. The Task Force notes that criminal investigation (and counterintelligence) often overlaps with intelligence work, and that overlap will enhance our knowledge. But it concludes that the case for a fundamental separation of law enforcement from the responsibility of providing information to policymakers is strong. The report argues that those running criminal investigations and who hold the arrest power—the greatest power to deprive someone of his or her liberties—should not be the same people who will be seeking all kinds of domestic information from local officials and business firms throughout the nation and using that information in databases. Nor should the intelligence analysts be the people who will be preparing cases prosecutors must present in court-the very problem recently cited by the federal court that oversees FBI foreign intelligence surveillance wiretaps. Under the scenario outlined in the report, the FBI would continue to have responsibility for managing clandestine collection operations inside the United States, like FISA wiretaps or the recruitment of undercover agents, under the supervision of the Attorney General. The Task Force report, entitled Protecting America's Freedom in the Information Age, offers specific recommendations on how the government can develop information collection and analysis capabilities while also protecting the civil liberties of our citizens. The Task Force examined highly successful regional initiatives from around the county, for example in Utah, Texas and California, where local and state homeland security efforts provide models for a national system. According to the report, the federal government is planning to spend $40 billion annually to protect the homeland, much of which will be used for new information technologies. Yet not enough of these dollars have been allocated to share and analyze information. Striking a balance between privacy and security is also a major concern of the Task Force. In using watch-out lists and other public and private databases, the Task Force calls on the President to create guidelines that could be used by agencies—from federal to local—as a guide on how to balance privacy and security. The report calls for the authorization of the scope of domestic information collection and analysis to be carefully defined. The report found that one idea that would prove helpful to national security is the concept of a "gate" with a virtual watch-out list. The report did not recommend merging all of the 12 or more watch-out lists that are currently maintained by the federal government, but it did recommend the creation of "virtual" consolidated watch-out lists. The Department of Homeland Security, or an agency with its functions, the report said, should be able to pass names across the various lists to check for "hits" without actually building a data warehouse of its own. Additionally, the report found that research and development in information technology within government has been insufficiently productive. It endorsed a proposal by the National Academy of Sciences' committee on technology and terrorism to create an Institute or similar institution that would provide government with advice and assistance on a range of issues from private sector experts. Such a Homeland Security Research Institute would have the ability to provide a wide variety of R & D needs and would be interdisciplinary in scope. In conjunction with the release of the report today, the Task Force hosted a policy discussion at the National Press Club at 9:30 am that focused on how government leaders should harness and integrate domestic information to enhance national security. Participating in the discussion, which was moderated by CNN anchor Frank Sesno, were the following Task Force members: Co-chairs Zoë Baird and James Barksdale; Philip Zelikow, Executive Director of the Task Force; Utah Governor Michael O. Leavitt; William Crowell, former Deputy Director of the National Security Agency; Esther Dyson of EDventure Holdings; and Jerry Berman of the Center for Democracy and Technology. The Markle Task Force on National Security in the Information Age is a diverse and bipartisan group of former policy makers from the past six presidential administrations, senior information technology executives, and privacy advocates from both the public and private sectors. The Markle Task Force has recommended ways of improving national security decisions by transforming business processes and how information is shared. Its recommendations informed the 9/11 Commission Report and were subsequently included in two federal laws. Learn more about the Markle Task Force at www.markle.org/national-security.
NEW YORK, NY/WASHINGTON, DC—An independent, multi-sector task force to determine how information and technology can enhance national security was announced today by the Markle Foundation in alliance with the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) and the Brookings Institution. The Task Force on National Security in the Information Age is co-chaired by Markle Foundation president Zoë Baird and former Netscape Communications chairman James Barksdale. It will include leaders from industry, government and the civil liberties community. Participants include EdVenture Holdings chairman Esther Dyson; Sun Microsystems chief researcher John Gage Governor Mike Leavitt of Utah and former National Security Agency deputy director Bill Crowell among many others. In the months since September 11, military, intelligence and law enforcement experts and the public at large have increasingly recognized the critical role that information plays in national security. However, experts agree that efforts to enable better collection and sharing of information require clearer definition of the roles of government agencies, better assessment of new technologies for improved information handling and careful consideration of how to expand the use of information while safeguarding civil liberties. The group will allow thought leaders from a wide variety of relevant fields to address these matters together. "Information is the key to a more secure society. As we expand the role of information collection and sharing, let's be sure we also protect the democratic freedoms that make our society worth securing," said Ms. Baird. "This task force is the kind of broad, multi-sectoral effort needed to address these imperatives and create a viable framework for moving forward." The task force will make recommendations regarding: Technologies that enable the more effective collection and sharing of information in response to new security threats Aligning governmental structures and rules with the more information-intensive approach needed to counteract new security threats Balancing the expansion of information's role in national security with safeguards for civil liberties—particularly in the privacy realm Strategies for deploying information more effectively for law enforcement, intelligence and homeland defense The role of the private sector in designing and implementing an information-based national security response, and the level of collaboration between private and public sectors "New technologies, applied appropriately, can effectively transform our ability to meet the security challenges of the twenty-first century," said John Hamre, president, CSIS. "This task force will develop the comprehensive conceptual framework that is needed to identify the information gaps and drive a strategy for remedying them." Over the next year, the group will release policy and briefing papers, provide information on promising technologies, and inform government officials. The ultimate goal is to produce a broad and coherent strategic vision that will enable the U.S. government, in collaboration with industry and civil society, to meet the challenge of the new security environment in an information age. Current participants in the Task Force on National Security in the Information Age Alex Aleinikoff, Georgetown Law School Robert Atkinson, Progressive Policy Institute Stewart A. Baker, Lawyer, Steptoe & Johnson Eric Benhamou, CEO, 3COM Jerry Berman, Executive Director, Center For Democracy & Technology Robert M. Bryant, President & CEO, The National Insurance Crime Bureau Ashton B. Carter, Ford Foundation Professor of Science & International Affairs, Harvard University Wesley Clark, Stephens Group, Inc. G. Wayne Clough, President, Georgie Institute of Technology William P. Crowell, President & CEO, CyLink Corporation Sidney D. Drell, Professor Emeritus, Stanford University Esther Dyson, Chairman, EDventure Holdings Amitai Etzioni, The Communitarian Network and George Washington University David J. Farber, Professor of Telecommunication Systems, Universi ty of Pennsylvania School of Engineering John Gage, Chief Researcher, Sun Microsystems Slade Gorton, Preston Gates & Ellis Morton H. Halperin, Director, Center for Democracy and Free Markets and Senior Fellow, Council on Foreign Relations Dr. Margaret A. Hamburg, M.D., VP, Biological Programs, Nuclear Threat Initiative John J. Hamre, President, Center for Strategic and International Studies Eric H. Holder, Jr., Partner, Covington & Burling Arnold Kanter, Principal, The Scowcroft Group Robert M. Kimmitt, Executive Vice President of Global and Strategic Policy, AOL Time Warner, Inc. Dr. Richard D. Klausner, M.D., National Academy of Sciences Michael O. Leavitt, Governor of Utah Tara Lemmey, Founding Partner & CEO, Project LENS Judith A. Miller, Lawyer, Williams & Connolly James Morris, Dean, Carnegie Mellon School of Computer Science Craig Mundie, Chief Technical Officer, Microsoft Jeffrey H. Smith, Partner, Arnold & Porter Abraham D. Sofaer, Senior Fellow, Hoover Institution, Stanford University James Steinberg, Vice President and Director of the Foreign Policy Studies, the Brookings Institution Paul S. Stevens, Partner, Financial Services, Privacy Law, Dechert Rick White, President & CEO, TechNet Philip Zelikow (ex officio), Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia The Markle Task Force on National Security in the Information Age is a diverse and bipartisan group of former policy makers from the past six presidential administrations, senior information technology executives, and privacy advocates from both the public and private sectors. The Markle Task Force has recommended ways of improving national security decisions by transforming business processes and how information is shared. Its recommendations informed the 9/11 Commission Report and were subsequently included in two federal laws. Learn more about the Markle Task Force at www.markle.org/national-security. About the Center for Strategic & International Studies (CSIS) For four decades, CSIS has been dedicated to providing world leaders with strategic insights on—solutions to—current and emerging global issues. CSIS maintains resident experts on all the world's major geographical regions and is committed to helping develop new methods of governance for the global age. Its audiences include public and private policymakers in the United States and around the world. About The Brookings Institution The Brookings Institution is an independent, nonpartisan research organization, which seeks to improve the performance and quality of U.S. public policies. It addresses current and emerging policy challenges and offers practical recommendations for dealing with them, expressed in language that is accessible to policymakers and the general public alike.
NEW YORK, NY—The Council on Foreign Relations today launched a unique online encyclopedia of terrorism and America's response to give the public an easy-to-read, authoritative primer on what the experts know—and don't know. "Our aim is to give people one reliable and understandable site to get briefed on the basics, and sort out fact from fiction," said Council President Leslie H. Gelb. Written by a Council team and drawing upon leading experts, will provide up-to-date, authoritative information in a crisp and clear question and answer format. "We'll recheck and update the answers as events change; we'll keep adding new Q&A fact sheets; and if we ever find that something's not fully accurate, we'll fix it," said Gelb. "Our watchword is simple: reliable information in troubled times." Produced in cooperation with the Markle Foundation, the new site also features This Week in the War on Terrorism summarizing new events in key areas such as the Investigation, Homeland Defense, New Legislation, and Global Repercussions of 9/11. "The goal of terrorism is to inspire fear-one effective antidote to fear is the facts," said Zoë Baird, President of the Markle Foundation. "By partnering with the Council on Foreign Relations, one of the nation's foremost institutions dedicated to increasing the public's understanding of the world, we are able to provide trustworthy and timely answers to the questions on the minds of millions of people around the world." Content on the site has been carefully researched, reported, and written by the Council on Foreign Relations, the nation's leading foreign policy organization. The editorial team is led by Warren Bass, a former associate editor of Foreign Affairs who holds a Ph.D. in Middle East history from Columbia, and Calvin Sims, the Council's Edward R. Murrow press fellow and former Tokyo bureau chief of The New York Times. The weekly summary is produced by former National Security Council staffer Kenneth Pollack, now deputy director of National Security Studies at CFR; Dafna Hochman is deputy director of the project.
On behalf of the Markle Task Force on National Security, Dempsey discusses sharing information more efficiently through a SHARE Network, privacy and due process guidelines, accountability and internal oversight, and the need for Congressional oversight.